The testicle or testes (plural) produce testosterone. It is basically the gland that makes a person a man. The testicle is classified as an endocrine gland. The most common glandular physical problems of the testicle can include:
- Testicular cancer
- Testicular torsion
- Testicular trauma
The testicles are quite prone to physical injuries. One can suffer from testicular torsion when the testicles are suddenly twisted which twist the spermatic cord and impedes or cuts blood flow to the testicles. This injury needs immediate surgery to bring back circulation to the testes.
Sadly, testicular cancer hits a good percentage of Caucasian men ranging from 15 to 40 years of age. This problem can be passed on genetically to a male family member or it can be caused by complications arising from an undescended testicle. Testicular cancer is easily curable provided the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
A part of the male reproductive system is the epididymis. This organ stores sperm and helps in making it capable of fertilization. The epididymis can be infected by sexually transmitted disease like chlamydia which can cause epididymitis. Epididymitis is the inflammation of the epididymis. It is painful and can also develop into an abscess. Without treatment, this condition will lead to scar tissue which can cause infertility since the scar tissue can block ejaculatory ducts and disrupt sperm maturation.
Hypogonadism is a disorder wherein the testis produces insufficient testosterone. This can cause mood swings, erectile dysfunction and reduced sex drive as well as symptoms like decreased muscle mass, weight gain (in the form of fat) and fatigue.
This gland is responsible for the fluid of the semen and enables the urine and semen to flow toward the right direction. Prostate problems can include benign prostate cancer, prostatitis and prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate cancer can be detected via PSA test and, test prostate tissue samples to identify cancerous cells. Treatments can include high intensity focused ultrasound, radiation and surgery.
Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate and its symptoms can mimic that of BPH and prostate cancer. To precisely identify this problem, doctors need to perform a digital rectal exam, urine and prostate secretions analyses and a prostate specific antigen test to accurately diagnose this problem.
BPH is also known as an enlarged prostate which causes urination difficulty and may require medication or surgery.
Cowper’s glands and Seminal Vesicles
The Cowper’s glands lie just below the prostate and are glands shaped like small peas. These glands produce glycoproteins including PSA to the semen which help fight infection in the tubes where urine and semen pass through when expelled from the body. However, they can become infected as well and develop cysts, stones and even cancerous cells.
The seminal vesicles also produce vesicular fluid called semen that serves as nourishment to the sperm. The semen also gives the sperm its thickness and stickiness when ejaculated. These vesicles can become infected and develop cysts, albeit rarely causing semen production to weaken.