Male Anatomy: Know Importance & Threats Related To Reproductive Organ

by Cheryl Powers

Male Reproductive Organ

The male reproductive system is a network of external and internal organs that function to produce, support, transport, and deliver viable sperm for reproduction.

Prenatally, the male sex organs are formed under the influence of testosterone secreted from the fetal testes; by puberty, the secondary sex organs further develop and become functional.
Sperm is produced in the testes and is transported through the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra.

Concomitantly, the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland produce seminal fluid that accompanies and nourish the sperm as it is emitted from the penis during ejaculation and throughout the fertilization process.

The male reproductive system is a crucial part of the male body. Like the rest of the human body, it is affected by the lifestyle, diet, and exercise that the human body receives.

Thus when the reproductive health of a couple is being investigated doctors may recommend a change in lifestyle, better-eating habits, and a more vigorous exercise routine.

It has been found that in infertility cases one third are caused due to male infertility and one third are attributed to problems in the female reproductive system.

The Male Reproductive System

Human anatomy is both fascinating as well as interesting to study and understand. The reproductive systems of both the male and the female body are complex and affected by several factors.

Their functioning is based not just on their proper structure but also on other parts of the body and their functioning. The male reproductive system is particularly prone to infection such as that of the urinary tract and needs to be paid adequate attention. Infection in males reproductive system may be a cause of infertility.

It is important for men to understand the male reproductive systems and the way it functions. This enables them to understand when a problem or infection exists in the reproductive system. While hormones seem to affect the female reproductive system quite strongly, their influence on the reproductive-male is also significant.

Male Reproduction and Male Infertility

Male Reproductive Tract
Infertility may be caused by a problem in either the male or female reproductive systems. It may also be attributed to physiological incompatibility and in many cases, the cause of infertility may be unknown.

Common male reproductive problems include blockage in the reproductive organs, inadequate sperm count, chromosomal abnormality and weak sperm activity. Many problems can be successfully treated with a reproductive medicine.

For centuries scientists and alternative medicine practitioners have been studying the human anatomy, with special emphasis on the reproduction organs, perhaps because the marvel of conception never fails to fascinate scientists.

Today there are several methods by which infertility can be treated. If a couple has been unable to conceive despite having unprotected sexual intercourse for over a year, then it is recommended that they visit a fertility or infertility clinic.

The doctor would first suggest for some tests to be carried out in order to determine whether both the man’s as well as the woman’s reproductive system is working optimally.

Once the problem has been identified it can be resolved with drugs, a male fertility supplement or by other techniques.

All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves — is one of the things that set living things apart from nonliving matter.

But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems it’s not essential to keeping an individual alive.

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female’s reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction.

The Male Reproductive Anatomy – How It Effects In Pregnancy

Effects Pregnancy
The male reproductive anatomy is often forgotten when we talk about infertility and troubles getting pregnant.

You can sometimes hear people joke about “shooting blanks” or something of the like but let’s face it if you have suffered the incredible pain of not being able to conceive.

If you have reached a breaking point and are starting to wonder if you will ever succeed or if you will ever get the pleasure of hearing a little baby call you mummy? But the very fact that you are reading this article gives me huge hope that you will, in fact, get pregnant and start your own family.
This is because you are showing the number 1 trait that differs you from the very unfortunate women who might never succeed. You are determined to get an education.

The fact that you are on the internet searching for answers to your problem shows me that you will be one of the lucky ones who find the ‘secrets’ and ‘truth’ about infertility.

Yes that’s right there are some secrets and there are lots of truths that simply get hidden from the majority of women – why? So that drug companies can continue to make billions of dollars every year.

What’s not unfortunate is that there are natural ways to conquer your so-called infertility it’s just a matter of finding them.

Today’s article is about the male anatomy reproductive system and how it affects infertility. Yes, it may be a small piece of the bigger infertility picture but you will agree that it is an important piece of the puzzle and one that is often forgotten.

The Male Reproductive System is Made Up of 3 Important components

Penis Size


The penis has one job, to make sure the sperm is delivered into the vagina and on its way to the cervix. Does size or shape matter? Just as long as the penis can get the sperm well inside the vagina and on its way, apart from that the size and shape are not that important.

There can be some cases of Hypospadias and Epispadias that can have negative effects but these are extreme conditions.


Very important as they produce and store the sperm that is used to fertilize the eggs. Unlike women men create new sperm every day and well into their adult life.

Strangely the testicles need to keep the sperm a few degrees cooler than the rest of the man’s body, and this is the reason for the testicles being stored outside the main trunk of the body. It takes about 2 months for a man’s sperm to mature and be ready for the long journey towards an egg.


Yes, you guessed it. The sperm is a vital part in the creation of a baby! Did you know that when a man ejaculates that he releases nearly two hundred million sperm! You would think that would be enough to guarantee a 100% success rate but unfortunately, it isn’t.

Many are killed within the first hour, others swim the wrong way. If a man has a reduced sperm count this simply reduces the percentages again.

What are The External Male Reproductive Structures?

Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the man’s abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external structures of the male reproductive system are the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles.

Penis — The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis.

The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.

The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like erectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused.

As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to allow for changes in penis size during an erection.

Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum — The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes.
For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature.
Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes) — The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes.

The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm.

Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.

Epididymis — The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It functions in the carrying and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes.

It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerges from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

What Are The Internal Male Reproductive Organs?

Internal Structure
The internal organs of the male reproductive system also called accessory organs, including the following:

  • Vas Deferens — The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory Ducts — These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
  • Urethra — The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  • Seminal Vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ motility (ability to move). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  • Prostate Gland — The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  • Bulbourethral Glands — The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland.

These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Organ Function

How Does The Male Reproductive System Function?

The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs.
The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis), and LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis.

Testosterone also is important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive.

Read More: Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Symptoms, Causes & Treatments

The organs of the male reproductive system are specialized for the following functions:

  • To produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
  • To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract
  • To produce and secrete male sex hormones

Unlike the female reproductive system, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles.

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